For a critical Christian response to these claims, see: The ancient polytheistic religions of Egypt, Persia, Babylonia and eventually Rome increasingly consolidated their pantheons of deities under a single primary god, usually a Sun-god. Humans could choose between good light or evil darkness and on judgment day be sent to Heaven or Hell based on their choices. Mithras was identified as the redeemer prophesied by Zoroaster: As an adult, Mithras healed the sick, made the lame walk, gave sight to the blind and raised the dead. Before returning to heaven at the Spring Equinox Mithras had a last supper with 12 disciples representing the 12 signs of the Zodiac. This militaristic black-and-white morality including a final judgment affecting an afterlife of heaven or hell probably accounted for the popularity of Mithraism among Roman soldiers. Mithraism was like an ancient fraternity:

THE INTERNET GUIDE TO SCOTLAND

This clan and Clan Malcolm share a common origin and early history. The clan also claims descent from Conn of the Hundred Battles. The surname of MacDonald was not used until the 16th Century.

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Share Paganism, in the broadest sense includes all religions other than the true one revealed by God, and, in a narrower sense, all except Christianity, Judaism, and Mohammedanism. The term is also used as the equivalent of Polytheism. It is derived from the Latin pagus , whence pagani i. Various forms of Paganism are described in special articles e.

Brahminism, Buddhism, Mithraism ; the present article deals only with certain aspects of Paganism in general which will be helpful in studying its details and in judging its value. We do not propose to discuss, theologically, philosophically, or even historically, the underlying unity, or universal originating cause, of all religions, if any such there be.

History as a matter of fact presents us in each case with a religion already existing, and in a more or less complicated form. Somewhere or other, some one of the human elements offered as universal, necessary, and sufficient germ of the developed religion, can, of course, be found. But we would point out that, in the long run, this element was not rarely a cause of degeneration, not progress; of lower forms of cult and creed, not pure Monotheism.

Thus it is almost certain that Totemism went for much in the formation of the Egyptian religion. The animal-standards of the tribes, gradually and partially anthropomorphized, created the jackal-, ibis-, hawk-headed gods familiar to us. But there is no real trace of the evolution from Zoolatry to Polytheism, and thence to Monotheism.

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Mithras is often represented as carrying a lamb on his shoulders, just as Jesus is. Midnight services were found in both religions. Petra, the sacred rock of Mithraism, became Peter, the foundation of the Christian Church. Itu derivative of Mitu or Mitra is considered as the Vegetation-deity. It is said that Mithra or [the] Sun took birth in the Cave on December 25th.

He travelled far and wide.

A returner to pagan partners, a little older and rather wiser. I still enjoy living in a wonderfully energetic home in the woodland on the bank of a river (the badgers haven’t been around for a while but the owls, kingfishers and foxes are still in here).

DuBois said Old Norse religion and other pre-Christian belief systems in Northern Europe must be viewed as “not as isolated, mutually exclusive language-bound entities, but as broad concepts shared across cultural and linguistic lines, conditioned by similar ecological factors and protracted economic and cultural ties”. Many skaldic verses are preserved in sagas.

Of the originally heathen works, we cannot know what changes took place either during oral transmission or as a result of their being recorded by Christians; [38] [39] the sagas of Icelanders , in particular, are now regarded by most scholars as more or less historical fiction rather than as detailed historical records. In the Middle Ages, several Christian commentators also wrote about Scandinavian paganism, mostly from a hostile perspective.

Theophoric place-names, including instances where a pair of deity names occur in close proximity, provide an indication of the importance of the cult of those deities in different areas, dating back to before our earliest written sources. Magnus Olsen developed a typology of such place-names in Norway, from which he posited a development in pagan worship from groves and fields toward the use of temple buildings.

It may have had links to Nordic Bronze Age: Some of these areas, such as Iceland, the Orkneys, Shetland, and the Faroe Island, were hardly populated, whereas other areas, such as England, Scotland, the Western Isles, Isle of Man, and Ireland, were already heavily populated. Christianization of Scandinavia The Nordic world first encountered Christianity through its settlements in the already Christian British Isles and through trade contacts with the eastern Christians in Novgorod and Byzantium.

On returning to Norway, he kept his faith largely private but encouraged Christian priests to preach among the population; some pagans were angered and—according to Heimskringla —three churches built near Trondheim were burned down. Private, albeit not public, pagan sacrifices and rites were to remain legal. We also have depictions of some of these stories on picture stones in Gotland and in other visual record including some early Christian crosses, which attests to how widely known they were.

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The grave contains the body of a Norse warrior thought to have been a chieftain or other high-ranking figure, lying with his weapons by his side in the remains of a rotted ship. He was likely interred during a ritualized pagan ceremony roughly 1, years ago, according to the researchers. In the Norse religion, valiant warriors entered festive and glorious realms after death, and it was thought that the vessels that served them well in life would help them reach their final destination.

Distinguished raiders were also equipped with weapons and valuable goods for the afterlife, even if they were to be cremated. Reconstruction of what the burial site unearthed at Ardnamurchan might have looked like.

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This introduces an interesting but obscure chapter in history, straddling Spain and France and consequently tending to be left by treatments of Spain to French history, and by treatments of France to Spanish history. Not all of it was ultimately retained by Spain, but readily accessible sources don’t seem to show either the difference between the old and new boundaries or what happened to the rulers of Navarre after the annexation — the table at right picks up at that point.

This seems like a grave oversight for the history of France. The history of Navarre is obscure enough that I found the full genealogy only with recourse to a succession of more serious and complete sources. Family trees for the Bourbons, such as given here , almost never go back further than the father, Henry, of Henry IV’s mother Jeanne.

Brian Tompsett’s Royal and Noble genealogy originally enabled me to fill in the gaps, but there are some obscurities and questions in the information of both Tompsett and Hay that I had to compare with other sources. Feldkamp [Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart, , pp. Fischer Verlag, , p.

Scone, Scotland

Isle of Iona Photo – buy at AllPosters. As such, this tiny island 1 mile wide, 3. If you want to feel its magic, the best time to be on Iona is either early in the morning or in the evening to avoid the hundreds of day-trippers who pour off the ferry every day. If the area around the Abbey gets too busy for you, then find one of Iona’s sandy beaches and relax. The south and western parts of the island are not so well visited, but well worth seeing.

The Witches’ Voice offers the latest (updated daily) in news and networking for the Modern Witch, Wiccan and Pagan Community.

A radical scheme to give every citizen a universal basic income UBI , regardless of whether or not they work, is set to be piloted by two Scottish councils this year. Labour-run Glasgow and Fife councils are designing trial schemes following meetings held late last year. It has not yet been announced what level the basic income will be set at, but the councils are to proceed with the pilots, subject to sufficient funding being secured. Any money earned above this is subject to taxation.

Matt Kerr, a Labour councillor and key force behind the issue, says his investigations into poverty convinced him a basic income was the right step forward. Jamie Cooke, head of think tank the Royal Society of Arts RSA in Scotland, which carried out research into the scheme, attended a meeting with Fife Council about the idea, which is said to have received enthusiastic support.

Mithra: The Pagan Christ

This page is sponsored by: Find your favorite costumes here The Real Origins of Halloween discusses the history of Halloween, the origins of trick-or-treating, reasons behind some of the symbols of the season, and why the holiday is well worth keeping and celebrating. Previous versions of this essay specifically contrasted the historical evidence with the absurd claims and urban legends used in most anti-Halloween propaganda.

I have now put those latter materials into their own essay, Halloween Errors and Lies , since it seems that many people have never seen or heard those fearmongering tales and could not understand why I would spend so much space discussing them within an historical essay. This is a work of amateur scholarship. If you wish to quote me in an academic environment, you may wish to first verify my statements by consulting the books linked within my text.

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Viking Chief Buried in His Boat Found in Scotland

Christian or really Pagan? While such idealisation of Christianity can be expected from clerics and true believers in the faith, there have been other voices who see a European identity defined through Christianity as useful even if its not actually true. Even staunchly secular anti-clerical France has not been immune from pushing the importance of faith.

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Mission Statement The mission of Handfastings. We seek to offer a wide range of information about handfastings and Goddess- and Nature-inspired wedding ceremonies. What is a Handfasting? A handfasting is an old Pagan custom, dating back to the time of the ancient Celts. A handfasting was originally more like an engagement period, where two people would declare a binding union between themselves for a year and a day.

The original handfasting was a trial marriage. It gave the couple the chance to see if they could survive marriage to each other. After a year goes by a handfasting was once believed to last a year and a day , the couple could either split as if they had never been married or could decide to enter permanently into marriage. Today, Wiccans and Pagans have embraced handfasting as a part of their wedding ceremony. A handfasting can either be a legal marriage depending on state law , or a commitment for “as long as love shall last.

The Handfasting Ceremony There are many variations of the traditional handfasting. After the bride and groom both declare their intent to enter into this union, the hands of the couple are clasped and fastened together with a cord or cords just before, just after, or during their vows are made to one another. The wrapping of the cord forms an infinity symbol.

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